Massive (Very Large) MIMO Systems
Multiple-antenna (MIMO) technology is becoming mature for wireless communications and has been incorporated into wireless broadband standards like LTE and Wi-Fi. Basically, the more antennas the transmitter/receiver is equipped with, the more the possible signal paths and the better the performance in terms of data rate and link reliability. The price to pay is increased complexity of the hardware (number of RF amplifier frontends) and the complexity and energy consumption of the signal processing at both ends.
Massive MIMO (also known as Large-Scale Antenna Systems, Very Large MIMO, Hyper MIMO, Full-Dimension MIMO and ARGOS) makes a clean break with current practice through the use of a very large number of service antennas (e.g., hundreds or thousands) that are operated fully coherently and adaptively. Extra antennas help by focusing the transmission and reception of signal energy into ever-smaller regions of space. This brings huge improvements in throughput and energy efficiency, in particularly when combined with simultaneous scheduling of a large number of user terminals (e.g., tens or hundreds). Massive MIMO was originally envisioned for time division duplex (TDD) operation, but can potentially be applied also in frequency division duplex (FDD) operation.
Other benefits of massive MIMO include the extensive use of inexpensive low-power components, reduced latency, simplification of the media access control (MAC) layer, and robustness to interference and intentional jamming. The anticipated throughput depends on the propagation environment providing asymptotically orthogonal channels to the terminals, and experiments have so far not disclosed any limitations in this regard. While massive MIMO renders many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that urgently need attention; for example, the challenge of making many low-cost low-precision components work effectively together, the need for efficient acquisition scheme for channel state information, resource allocation for newly-joined terminals, the exploitation of extra degrees of freedom provided by an excess of service antennas, reducing internal power consumption to achieve total energy efficiency reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios.
On this page we provide lists of research papers in the emerging area of very large MIMO systems. The intention is to list some key papers that address different research problems that appear in massive MIMO. These lists might serve as an accessible entry-point for those who want to study this field.
This massive MIMO info-point has grown out from a literature survey website originally created and hosted by the communication systems group at Linköping University. The page is now maintained by the FP7-MAMMOET project.